V. Evaluating volcanic hazards  

V.6 Volcanic ash and gas: Generation, transport and impacts on infrastructure, aviation, and climate

Matthieu Poret,  Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna, Italy; matthieu.poret@ingv.it
Anja Schmidt, University of Leeds, UK; a.schmidt@leeds.ac.uk
Valeria Cigala, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany; valeria.cigala@min.uni-muenchen.de
Alan Robock, Rutgers University; robock@envsci.rutgers.edu
Inga Tarasenko, Université catholique de Louvain, Earth and Life Institute, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; inga.tarasenko@uclouvain.be
Tamsin Mather, Oxford University, UK ; Tamsin.Mather@earth.ox.ac.uk
Antonio Costa, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna, Italy; antonio.costa@ingv.it

Volcanic eruptions can produce various hazardous phenomena, such as pyroclastic density currents, and buoyant plumes. The latter can reach the stratosphere and generate volcanic clouds made of tephra and gas that are potentially transported thousands of kilometers. Large eruptions produce stratospheric sulfate aerosol clouds lasting more than a year. These clouds can have a significant effect on Earth’s climate by scattering solar radiation back to space inducing global cooling, winter warming in the Northern Hemisphere, and reductions in summer monsoon precipitation, as observed after the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo eruption. Tephra deposited on terrestrial and marine ecosystems may affect the carbon biogeochemical cycle. Smaller-magnitude eruptions and persistent quiescent degassing may also affect the environment and climate. Understanding ash generation and volcanic cloud dispersion processes is very important in predicting the potential effects on the environment, climate and society. Although ash, gas and aerosol dispersal are governed by the eruption source parameters they are also greatly influenced by atmospheric conditions. To quantify such impacts, it is crucial to develop reliable methods for estimating eruption intensity, the eruptive column height, the bulk granulometry, and the climate response. For these reasons it is essential to improve our understanding of these processes by combining field studies, experimental and laboratory analyses, remote sensing, and numerical modeling. We welcome papers focused on:

  1. Near-field volcanic cloud generation and detection;

  2. Field and remote sensing of volcanic clouds;

  3. Environmental and climatic impact records of past volcanic eruptions; and

  4. Modeling of tephra dispersal; Modeling of the environmental and climatic effects of future volcanic eruptions including analogue studies on climate engineering.